The Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize Logo

Supernatural, Great And Unnatural

they examine and analyze literature, there exists a multitude of techniques the great can be interpreted. A visitor should consider precisely what is supernatural about a certain circumstance in the textual content. Are there faeries, witches, wizards and ghosts? What about spells, dragons or angels and devils? By simply observation, the supernatural or magical detects usually entail a character with certain electrical power, usually the main character or perhaps hero in the story. Exactly what the purposes of these heroes and what are they performing that

The Impact Of Literary works On Books And The Social View Of Poetry

Books possesses the capability to greatly influence the world, and those who find a way to impact literary works drive the powerful effect. Few people in the history of books publicized as much thoughts and critical landscapes as T. S. Eliot, and by disseminating his views throughout the literature world, Eliot found a way to communicate new perspectives and tastes in literature (Worthen). Born in the fall of 1888, Capital t. S. Eliot grew up to become one of the most influential poets ever

Superb Determination. Literature Owns The Capability

Exceptional Motivation Literary works possesses the ability to greatly influence the earth, and those who find a way to impact literary works drive this powerful effect. Few people inside the history of literature publicized as many thoughts and critical sights as T. S. Eliot, and by distributing his viewpoints throughout the literature world, Eliot found a method to communicate new perspectives and tastes in literature (Worthen). Born in the fall of 1888, T. S. Eliot grew up to get one of the most influential

Posted on bastille day 2010

By: Paul Lake

In 1935 in his composition Religion and Literature, inches T. S. Eliot described his period as one in which readers had never observed the Christian faith spoken of because anything but an anachronism. inches He additional declared, … the whole of modern literature is corrupted in what I contact Secularism… it is simply unacquainted with, simply cannot understand the meaning with the primacy from the supernatural in the natural lifestyle…. Several decades following Eliot’s dissertation, it is difficult for people even to imagine a time when readers thought the primacy of the great over the organic life. So total has been the success of the normal over the great that today we can hardly utter these term other than in reference to the latest horror motion picture. To find a time when a religious attitude was pervasive, we must look back to the seventeenth 100 years, to a poet like David Donne. Religious belief was so widespread in Donne’s time that he may conclude Ay Sonnet Times One brief sleep previous, we wake eternally. as well as Then loss of life will be forget about. Death, thou shalt die, without alluding for the doctrines that enabled readers to resolve the seeming paradox.

A half century later on (1682), we discover John Dryden in his poem Religio Laici: or A Layman’s Faith, inches already struggling a rearguard action resistant to the Enlightenment’s strike on revealed religion. Though armed with great learning and wit, Dryden framed his adversary’s factors so well that modern visitors now take the capsules as ordinary common sense. In the following passing, Dryden illustrates how the unnatural was lost to the Western european mind:

Age Discovery experienced introduced Christian Europe to previously not known people and cultures. Surely, reasonable minds concluded, a loving Our god would not condemn the innocent island people of Tahiti or the Indians of North and South America to timeless damnation since they had not been confronted with biblical Christianity. Thus, that they reasoned, No supernatural praise can be true because only a general regulation, is definitely, one Which must to all, and almost everywhere be known (like what the law states of gravity) could be true. Since the Holy bible makes simply no provision intended for the American Indians, their so-called facts and the theology emerging from their website were cast into hesitation. Applying explanation to the Holy book in identical fashion, each of our homegrown philosophe Thomas Jefferson took a pair of scissors to the New Testament and virtually cut out every hint with the supernatural from its pages, by virgin labor and birth to revival, turning Jesus, in the process, to a kind of peripatetic Rousseau.

Rejecting the Holy bible and the biblical myth of Adam’s fall and Initial Sin, the Enlightenment offered birth to a new misconception that has governed our creativeness ever sincemyth of the Natural Guy, who, in accordance to John Locke, comes into the world into the universe naturally very good, and the same, and cost-free. No longer would the serpent and human disobedience deprive the human race of earthly perfection, nevertheless the corrupt societies into which will human benefits and purity were created. Reason exclusively could cost-free us from the fetters of custom and make all of us into new men and women. To arrange us to get a world without kings or established church buildings or oppressive social jobs, thinkers by Rousseau to Mary Wollstonecraft and Jessica de Gournay advocated fresh modes of education. And to fill the void left by Our god, men raised Nature, who Denis Diderot called the sovereign mistress, and her counselor Reason to be the final arbiters of legislation and values.

In this environment, the fusion of intellect and religious faith achieved by the Metaphysical poets was no longer conceivable. The dissociation of feeling had placed in. As Eliot noted elsewhere in his essay, the graceful expression of religion in more recent years has generally shrunk to a special category called religious or devotional verse, which, according to Eliot, through nature a small art as it ignores the top human interests depicted by simply great materials and because in such passage poets publish consciously while believers, certainly not unconsciously as they would within a genuinely faith based age.

The triumph of Reason turned out only temporary, on the other hand. It turned out that being governed by cause was just like difficultin several ways less satisfyingbeing governed by trust. As Jonathan Swift in Gulliver’s Trips suggested with his highly fair but passionless horses of Houyhnhnm-land, life under the reign of the empress Reason could be excruciatingly uninteresting. One can just spend numerous afternoons speaking about friendship and benevolence. And so in a heart of rebellion, the poets of the following century kicked Reason off her pedestal and replaced her with Feeling.

Yet human nature becoming what it is, the religious instinct was not thus easily repressed. As To. E. Hulme in his dissertation Romanticism and Classicism asserted, it bubbled up and into the sentirse of the Romantics, often messing the even their utmost poetry. Hulme argues that at the root of Romanticism is the familiar notion that man, the individual, is a great infinite reservoir of options; and if you are able to so rearrange society by the destruction of oppressive buy then these kinds of possibilities could have a chance and you should get Progress. By comparison, Hulme states, the time-honored attitude respect man since an immensely fixed and limited dog whose characteristics is absolutely continuous. In a passage worth quoting at some length, Hulme observes the way the Romantic frame of mind has infected modern beautifully constructed wording:

It would be a blunder to identify the classical view with that of materialism. To the contrary it is definitely identical while using normal religious attitude. I should put it this way: That part of the fixed nature of gentleman is the opinion in the Deity…. By the perverted rhetoric of Rationalism, the natural intuition are under control and you are changed into an irresolute. Just as in the situation of the other intuition, Nature has her revenge. The predatory instincts that find their proper and proper outlet in religion must come out in some other method. You don’t have confidence in God, so that you begin to assume that man is known as a god. You don’t believe in Heaven, so you start to believe in nirvana on earth. In other words you get romanticism…. Romanticism then, and this is a good definition I am able to give from it, is spilt religion.

Hulme adds that whereas the classical poet person never does not remember that person has limits, the Romantics believe that man is endless, and … the whole romantic attitude appears to crystalise in verse circular metaphors of flight. Hugo is always traveling by air, flying over abysses, soaring up in the eternal smells. The word endless is in almost every line. inches

No job of literature better shows the attitude Hulme describes here than Goethe’s Faust. The author’s life (which began inside the Age of Purpose and ongoing well in to the Romantic era) mirrored regarding his well-known protagonist, whom sacrificed his youthful religious faith to the requirements of purpose and then fled reason for a fuller life of love and actions. In the subsequent passage from Part One particular, Faust expresses his aspire to reject individual limits and soar way up, like the sunlight:

Faust’s mention of the lark can spark memories in The english language speaking viewers of Shelley and his skylarkthe more solidly grounded Keats and his nightingale. By the early on nineteenth hundred years, the normal life got assumed this kind of primacy within the supernatural that genuine faith no longer looked possible, therefore, as Hulme suggests, the religious impulse spilled over into the organic religion of Romantic poetry. No longer able to pray, poets in increased states of emotion now used apostrophe instead, imploring birds, the west wind flow, or in Wordsworth’s case, the Wye River to lift or perhaps sustain all of them in their troubles. Like Faust, men started to believe that they may be godlike. inches Walt Whitman, for example , at times comes perilously close to determining himself together with the deity in Song of Myself:

In the flexible unrestricted shape of his verse, Whitman added a different dimension to the poetry of liberation. As it happens that the classic forms of beautifully constructed wording must be measured among the fetters imposed about human purity by a tainted society. And thus since the moments of Whitman, poets who want to fly off on the viewless wings of poesy have got often commenced by jettisoning the boring forms that perplex and retard all their flight. Which clear hyperlink between the desire to radically modify society and literary forms. From surrealism to futurism to the Dark Mountain poets to the Is better than, Deep Imagists and Terminology poets, the objective of the avant-garde has been to radically customize way we all read, believe, and even set up society. In a recent discussion in the online journal Perihelion around the situation from the avant-garde, the critic Alan Golding provides argued the fact that term refers to some mix of oppositional social (and/or literal) politics and certain top features of style deemed in their minute as ‘ As with their wigged and powdered intellectual forebears, the modern literary vanguard has been convinced by Reason in its various contemporary guises that by smashing the oppressive forms of the past we can live like gods in a politically progressive utopia.

The most experimentally radical and socially driven movement of recent many years has been Language Poetry. inch Born of various schools of Post-Structuralist critique, and deeply influenced by Marxism and feminism, the movement’s advocates argue that terminology itself is actually a code that contains and reproduces the larger code of society; and that above all else, it binds us to traditional thoughts of home, gender, and identity. In this view, not really poetry is immune to the corrupting affect of a capitalist culture; alternatively, poetry is usually itself a commodity, mixed with a thing called cultural capital, and must be recognized as such to be able to demystify that and eliminate its provocative illusions. To aid in this process, movement theorists believe that the practice of writing must be revolutionized; seal should be averted and that means made indeterminate so that studying becomes even more democratized since each audience learns to construct a text’s meaning to get him or perhaps herself. Story, argument, the poetic collection, grammar, syntax, and even punctuational should be busted open to allow an endless play of interpretive options, as well as to expose the scary workings of language.

Just like many of his fellow vocabulary poets a politically lively leftist, Generic Andrews declares that the best purpose of this sort of writing is

… To cast question on each each construction of truth. Not just simply by articulating the gap among sign & referenttheatricalizing that gap by keeping away from meaning altogetherto show away a more organized idea of language as a system & perform of distinctions, with its individual rules of functioning. Major praxis… in this article involves the rigors of formal celebration, a playful cheating, a certain illegibility within the legible: an infinitizing, a wide-open exuberance, a perpetual action machine, a transgression.

The greatest consequence of the sort of writing, he says, will be to re-envision the social contract.

Even though seeming an unlikely yacht for spilt religion, inches Language poetryits groundbreaking aspirations, it is infinitizing, inches and its desires for a utopian Marxist-feminist futureonce again rooted in the Enlightenment myth of primal chasteness and contains all the normal earmarks of Romanticism. For all its groundbreaking posturing, however , the movements has gone down prey as to what Hulme telephone calls man’s fixed and limited nature. In the same dialogue in Perihelion, Kent Johnson offers a critique of Language poetry’s once-utopian national politics, arguing that the movement was already assimilated by larger literary culture it claimed to reject, and this it, along with its different second-generation dish formations, right now stands because an experimentalist, but respectful and loyal competitors within the Parliament of Academic beautifully constructed wording. In answering the question as to why the movement went from inch a vital utopian radicalism to professionalized and institutional hotel, Meeks writes

The denouement was determined before hand by the persistent failure with the Language poets to practice what they preached. Polemically rejecting within their theory the I and Self while the ground of poetry, they enshrined that in their practice in the the majority of nonchalant techniques, framing and exhibiting their very own avant-garde products within the useful confines of Authorship, with all its attendant dynamics of cultural capital acquisition and portfolio placing.

Put more simply, the movement’s old anti-capitalist claims had been shed since the creators jostled pertaining to publication by good presses, academic jobs, and lucrative grants or loans, lectures and readings. While claiming to be selfless, genderless and identity-less, and while reasserting the human claim to an earthly paradise, what the movement’s freelance writers really wanted all along was to follow the valid avant-garde way to famous authorship and the plush comforts associated with an endowed seat.

After three centuries with the primacy with the natural within the supernatural and two centuries of poems as spilt religion, perhaps the time has come to hope for the fulfillment of Hulme’s prediction: that the length of Romanticism will be succeeded with a classical period that abjures utopian politics and instead sees things inside the light of ordinary day. Hulme adds that this new traditional spirit will recognize human limits and remember that gentleman is confused with globe. Most importantly, the new soul in beautifully constructed wording will manifest itself in the re-emergence of fancy or the thoughts.

One may argue that this new classical frame of mind has already made an appearance, if to some extent sporadically, inside the decades as Hulme wrote, sometimes inside the works with the great Modernists and sometimes in the poetry of the people who worked well instead inside poetry’s historic formal practices, writing of real people and things with classical restraining. Robert Frost surely represents one such poet.

As to the upcoming, a classical poetry ruled by fancy might take two very different forms: the initially, an honest atheism founded on reason’s rejection of the supernatural; the other, a truly religious poems in which cause and hope are reconciled. The poetry of Philip Larkin could possibly be said to display the former. Aubade, Larkin’s great deep breathing on fatality, clearly identifies human limits and recognizes objects by ordinary mild of day. Though its conclusion may be the polar reverse of Donne’s in his wonderful sonnet, you will discover something thrilling, if perhaps somewhat relaxing, in the kampfstark clarity of the poem’s judgments. Death can be final, overall, and always stalking in the dark areas; religion is known as a vast moth-eaten musical brocade / Developed to pretend we never die.

Although stark, Larkin’s poem provides a bracing contrast to a poem on the same subject matter by Dylan Thomas, And Death Shall Have No Mastery, whose sonorous Romanticism Larkin explicitly rejected. There are moments in Thomas’s composition when we feel we are back again with Dr . Faust and Percy Shelley soaring in the infinite as the lifeless posthumously cavort with the man inside the wind plus the west moon or reconcile back around the endless gases with stars at elbow and foot. inch A lavish New Age theology pervades the poem’s bottom line where the environmentally friendly corpses or spirits in the dead will be reincarnated while heads of the characters sludge hammer through daisies and break in the sun till the sun fights.

At some level, a more classical poetry from the imagination may well already be said to exist in the work of Wallace Dahon. In To a High-Toned Old Christian Woman, inch for instance, Dahon playfully developments the idea that beautifully constructed wording is the supreme fiction and shows that the poetic imagination is an adequate, if perhaps somewhat more playful, substitute for conventional piety. In Sunday Morning, inch Stevens explicitly rejects religion’s supernatural promises (The tomb in Middle east / Can be not the porch of spirits ongoing. / It’s the grave of Jesus, where he lay. ); asserts the absence of God (we are unsponsored, free); and offers zero future heaven but what can be experienced here on earth with the aid of imagination. Though rejecting the thought of a future utopia, Stevens provides something much like the organic religion of Romanticism. In fact , he goes further than writers like Wordsworth and Emerson, who declined God nevertheless infused mother nature with a presence or spirit or Oversoul: instead of producing his verse a mere yacht for spilt religion, Dahon would increase poetry itself to the status of religion.

For the better example of how the creativeness might get back together the claims of faith and reason and create a honestly religious poetry, we might consider what might seem an less likely source: the visionary poet person William Blake. Blake when famously referred to as Wordsworth a pagan thinker for substituting nature intended for God as well as the natural for the psychic man. Although sometimes appearing to decline reason downright, Blake in his masterpiece of satirical irony The Marriage of Heaven and Hell tries to reconcile this sort of apparent opposites as reason and energy, body and soul, through the office from the poetic imagination. His publication also problems conventional sights of nirvana and terrible. Most extremely, in the pursuing section named A Unforgettable Fancy (Plate 12), Blake addresses a number of the objections from the Deists:

The Prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel dined beside me, and I asked them how they dared so roundly to say that The almighty spake to them; and whether they did not think at the time, that they can be misunderstood, & so be the cause of imposition.

Isaiah answer’d. saw not any God, neither heard virtually any, in a limited organical belief; but my own senses discover’d the infinite in every thing, and as I was then perswaded, & continue to be confirm’d, the fact that voice of honest indignation is the voice of Our god, I cared for not for consequences but published. ‘

Then I asked: a firm perswasion that a point is so, produce it so? ‘

This individual replied: poets think that it does, & in age range of imagination this firm perswasion taken out mountains; but many are not competent of a firm perswasion of any thing. ‘

Then Ezekiel said. philosophy with the east educated the first principles of human notion: some nations held 1 principle pertaining to the origin & some an additional; we of Israel trained that the Poetic Genius (as you today call it) was the first principle and the others only derivative, which was the cause of each of our despising the Priests & Philosophers of other countries, and prophecying that all Gods would now be turned out to begin in our bait & to be the tributaries in the Poetic Professional; it was this that our superb poet Ruler David preferred so fervently & invokes so pathetic’ly, saying with this he conquers enemies & governs kingdoms; and we so loved each of our God. we cursed in his name every one of the deities of surrounding nations, and true that they acquired rebelled; from these views the plebeyo came to feel that all nations would at last be controlled by the jews. ‘

said he, all firm perswasions, is come to pass; for any nations consider the jews’ code and worship the jews’ goodness, and what greater subjection can be? ‘

I observed this with some wonder, & must concede my own conviction. After evening meal I ask’d Isaiah to favour the earth with his lost works; he said non-e of the same value was lost. Ezekiel said precisely the same of his.

I likewise asked Isaiah what made him go naked and barefoot three years? this individual answer’d, same that made our friend Diogenes the Grecian. ‘

Then i asked Ezekiel why he eat muck, & place so long in the right & left side? he answer’d, desire of raising additional men right into a perception with the infinite; this kind of the American tribes try out, & can be he genuine who withstands his genius or conscience. only for the sake of present convenience or satisfaction? ‘

Nevertheless Blake’s irony is multi-layered, there’s a kernel of authentic insight through this fanciful experience. According to Blake, Isaiah’s revelations of God’s judgments were not bound by history or location. The forecaster said that this individual didn’t notice God in a limited organical notion, but rather was strongly persuaded that the tone of honest indignation is a voice of God. inch Since the voice of honest indignation could be heard by anyone through the globe, it is potentially offered to all, responding to the Deists’ demand for universality. Blake actually makes procedures for the Indians in worlds found out new when he compares the physical austerities practiced by simply Ezekiel to people of the North American people, suggesting that equally practices are impelled with a universal wish to alter individual consciousness to experience a perception of the infinite. Similarly, Blake has Isaiah assert the fact that impulse that made him go naked and unshod for three years was distributed by the Ancient greek language Cynic Diogenes.

According to this Memorable Extravagant, the main difference between your religion of Jews and Christians and those of other people is that the persons of Israel taught that the Poetic Genius was your first basic principle, from which all others are derived. Similarly, the only difference between the descendants of the great poet King David and other nations around the world is the better emphasis the previous place on the poetic creativeness.

If Blake’s claim pertaining to the Poetic Geniusimaginationthis unforgettable fancy appears audacious, do not forget that the Bible of Jews and Christians is not a work of systematic theology but a compendium of stories, poetry, songs, proverbs, histories, biographies, inspired oratory, and poetic drama. Yet the poetic imagination Blake talks of is different from that of Wallace Stevens, which statements the office of God to get itself; alternatively, Blake’s identifies in the tone of voice of genuine indignation the veritable voice of God, and discerns inside the admonitions of prophets the lineaments of human morality. It finds out in the stories of the Scriptures not merely the natural life of their human protagonists, nevertheless the spiritual journeys of men and women who suffer sin and tragic error, fatality and redemption.

Remember, also, that the fresh Jew who founded Christianity was himself a poet of formidable gifts, one that employed parables rather than reasoned argument and coined metaphors with stunning audacity. It can easier to place a camel through the attention of a hook than for the rich guy to get into nirvana. First remove the log from your eye ahead of you criticize the speck in your brother’s. Mathew information that Christ’s last phrases as he experienced the final agonies of crucifixion were My God, my God, how come have you forsaken me? Though typically taken as a heartfelt weep of lose hope, Christ was in fact citing a poemopening type of the Twenty-Second Psalm, which depicts a suffering gentleman who, at one justification in his humiliation, sees those around him casting tons for his clothes. Together with his last phrases, Jesus hence entangled prediction and poems in a single knot, becoming publisher and main character of a superb time-folding tragedy.

This is not to express that Christ was simply a poet, but rather that in addition to his more orthodox characterizationssecond person from the Trinity, the incarnate Logos, or what Blake referred to as Divine Manwas the poet. Probably only graceful language can make the divine Author’s existence felt on the deepest levels of our beingmight describe why the Latin mass or the prose poetry from the Book of Common Plea retains these kinds of a powerful hold on worshippers. At every stage of your relationship with God, the poetic thoughts appears to be included, from interpretation parables and prophecy, to composing church hymns and liturgy, to responding to God in suitably enhanced language in public places prayer. A single might even say that by speaking in sentirse or parables, the prophets, the psalmists, and poets of more recent times are merely extending the spirit of God, whom created the globe by fiat and referred to as it great. George Herbert brought Christian doctrine alive with his richly imagined allegories. To show the magnificence of The almighty and the peculiar eccentricities of his handiwork, Gerard Manley Hopkins made a poetic language of similar richness and variety. Perhaps what allowed the writer of Genesis to state that man was made in God’s image was not our physical likeness, nevertheless a similar professional for imaginative creation.

Most likely as Blake suggests in his Memorable Fancy, reason and faith are not antithetical, but may be reconciled by the poetic wizard. Perhaps poets in the future will understand that nevertheless subject to interrogative by explanation, faith would not, like a legal conviction, break at the tip of a fair doubt. Most likely too, as Hulme suggests, we are finally approaching a moment when the poems of spilt religion will probably be supplanted by a poetry of the imagination, producing a truly religious poems again possiblenot religious in the thin sense, but as Eliot described it, beautifully constructed wording unconsciously permeated by an acute ethical awareness.

A single promising advancement is that because the age of the Deist, science has exposed a much less mechanistic, more mysterious world. No longer the clockwork whirligig of Newton and his intellectual progeny, the cosmos now seems similar to a living organism or imaginative spirit that brings purchase out of chaos and promotes larger levels of difficulty as it advances. At its very best levels, such as quantum physics or human being consciousness, matter and brain seem mysteriously intertwined; the logos and living skin appear no difference. Perhaps since Blake advises, a firm perswasion can occasionally make a specific thing true. According to Isaiah in Blake’s imagined dialogue, All poets believe that it does, & in ages of imagination this firm perswasion removed mountain range.

In a future era, perhaps poetsof looking to fly more than them in the eternal gasessimply push mountains using a firm persuasion. After all, relating to Christ the parable-maker, it requires trust no greater than a mustard seed.

Your garden, The Apple And The Fall-

The Garden, The Apple plus the Fall- The Retelling in the Fall of Man from Paradise in Western Literature Western books, particularly that of a religious nature, is replete with references to paradisepoker, a transcendental reality through which man is present in his ideal state. In the western cannon, the Garden of Eden is ubiquitous with this paradise or nirvana. What is the Garden of Eden? In what ways has man’s fall by paradise influenced the mindset and psyche of modern gentleman? Like many tales in

Redeemed coming from fire

Eliot’s despair, nevertheless , was short-lived. After examining agnostic Bertrand Russell’s composition A Cost-free Man’s Worship, essentially an argument that man must worship gentleman, Eliot made the decision its thinking was low. He moved in the opposite direction and 1927 was confirmed inside the Church of England. Precisely the same year, he also threw in the towel his American citizenship to become a British subject.

His beliefs became more widely known with all the publication of Ash Wednesday in 1930, a poem showing the difficult hunt for truth (Where shall the term be found, where will the phrase / Resound? Not in this article, there is not enough silence) plus the discovery of any faith which will last, portrayed in the repeated phrase, Because I do not really hope to change again. Though belittled sharply by literati to get his turn to Christianity, he continued to express his trust in his poems.

Eliot assumed his finest achievement was writing the broadly religious poem Four Quartets (1943). It relates to the themes of mtime and perpetuity, spiritual insight and revelation, culminating in an allusion to Pentecost:

The ove descending fractures the airWith fire of incandescent terrorOf which the tongues fileThe main one discharge from sin and error.The only desire, or else hopelessnessIs based on the choice of pyre or pyre/>To be redeemed via fire by simply fire.

In The Idea of a Christian Society (1939), as well as other performs, Eliot asserted that the humanist attempt to type a non-Christian, rational civilization was doomed. The experiment will are unsuccessful, he wrote, but we must be very individual in awaiting its break; meanwhile redeeming the time: so the Faith may be preserved surviving through the darker ages before us; to resume and repair civilization, and save the earth from committing suicide.

This individual didn’t believe that society must be ruled by church, just by Christian principles, with Christians being the mindful mind as well as the conscience in the nation.

Eliot looked to writing takes on in the 1930s and ’40s because he thought drama draws in people who without conscious thought seek a faith. The year 1935 saw the premiere of Murder in the Cathedral, a play based upon the martyrdom of Thomas Becket, through which Eliot reiterates that hope can live only if the faithful are ready to die because of it. It was then The Family members Reunion (1939) and The Night club (1949), his greatest theatrical success. In the plays, he managed to manage complex meaning and spiritual themes although entertaining viewers with farcical plots and keen interpersonal satire.