Meropenem Unwanted effects


Le mreste actif contre un significant spectre para pathoggram positif ou gram nincluant les individus qui produisent des bLe msemble deux fois moins actif que l’imipcontre l’ensemble des bacteries gram positif. Il reste deux fois plus actif contre les entDes deux articles semblent d’efficaciten se promenant sur lePseudomonas aeruginosa. Leur pharmacocinest elle lui aussi similaire. Le mprpossiblement une plus grande ptissulaire. Il nenni subit passing d’hydrolyse au niveau ret peut administren deficiency d’un antagoniste compentre ma dihydropeptidase, telle la cilastine. Lors kklk essais cliniques, le msemble aussi set performant que l’imipou la ceftazidime dans le marché de le traitement des infections au niveau des tissus mous, man tractus urinaire, du tractus respiratoire supde l’abdomen, et lors d’fchez les neutropstatement

This kind of study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Chia-Yi Christian Hospital (CYCH), a 1000-bed regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan (Approval # CYCH-IRB-105066). The IRB waived informed agreement due to the nostalgic study style and the research posing only minimal risk. All principal data had been collected relating to techniques outlined in epidemiology suggestions to strengthen the reporting of observational studies.

Statistical strategies

The primary endpoint was the percentage of people in every single treatment group with a satisfactory clinical response at the end of randomized treatment. A satisfactory response rate of 85% was assumed to get imipenem/cilastatin. To show equivalence between meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin, the upper 95% conf

Extra endpoints included the adequate clinical response rate at the end of treatment in bacteriologically evaluable sufferers, and the bacteriologic response at the conclusion of treatment for evaluable patients. In addition , a subgroup analysis based on the type of disease was performed.

For each endpoint, the ratios of individuals with a satisfactory response in each group were as opposed using a chi square test. The difference in ratios was believed, together with 95% CI (calculated using a typical approximation), and statistical significance determined making use of the chi square evaluation.

Data collection

Electronic and written medical records for all enrolled patients were reviewed. A standardised case survey form was utilized to collect information on their particular demographics and clinical qualities such as age, gender, fundamental diseases, having brain images due to neurologic symptoms or perhaps signs within one year ahead of this entrance, previous utilization of medications inside one month ahead of this hospitalization, initial essential signs and laboratory info before the use of ertapenem, intense care product (ICU) entrance, infection syndromes treated by simply ertapenem, dose and treatment duration of ertapenem, concomitant medications during the treatment course of ertapenem, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital fatality. Underlying conditions included neurologic comorbidities, such as old stroke, parkinsonism, dementia and epilepsy. For people with seizures, the onset date of seizures, results of calculated tomography (CT) scan of brain performed for the seizure, electroencephalograph (EEG) performed for the seizure, and management of seizures were also recorded.


Meropenem can be active against a broad spectrum of gram-positive and -negative pathogens which include beta-lactamase manufacturers. Meropenem seems to be two- to fourfold fewer active than imipenem against gram-positive organisms. Meropenem is usually two- to fivefold more active against enterobacteriaceae. Both the compounds appear to be equally lively againstPseudomonas aeruginosa. Pharmacokinetic disposition is additionally similar pertaining to imipenem and meropenem. Meropenem may display greater tissues penetration. Meropenem is not labile to renal hydrolysis and can be implemented without a competitive antagonist of dihydropeptidase, just like cilastatin. In clinical trials, meropenem appears to be while safe and effective because imipenem/cilastatin or ceftazidime in the treatment of attacks involving smooth tissue, urinary tract, uppr respiratory tract, belly processes, and febrile neutropenic episodes.

Record analysis

Ongoing variables had been described as means and standard deviations, and analyzed by using a Mann-WhitneyU-test. Particular variables were expressed as frequency and proportions, and compared with a chi-square test out or Fisher’s exact check if the predicted number was less than or perhaps equal to twelve. Factors linked to the development of seizure were identified using a conditional logistic regression model. All potential factors associated had been tested using univariate evaluation first. Factors with apvalue lower than 0. two were after that included in the multivariate analysis using the backward stepwise method. All tests were two-tailed and ap-value a few ) had been observed in the truth patients.

Ertapenem was mainly utilized to treat individuals with a associated with UTI, accompanied by pneumonia, and application of this antimicrobial agent showed not any significant difference among case and control people. Around 60 per cent (20/33) of case people and around three-fourths of control sufferers received the recommended doasage amounts, and the portion of ICU admission in the beginning was identical (30. 3% vs . twenty-eight. 0%). In this study, eleven case subjects and 30 control people received typical dose based upon their suprarrenal function. Otherwise, lower dosage than suggested was approved in two cases and 5 regulates, respectively. No association with subtherapeutic medication dosage and the advancement seizure existed (p sama dengan 0. 85). No people in the case or perhaps control group received supratherapeutic dose. Relating to treatment final result, longer duration of hospitalization and higher raw in-hospital fatality were observed in the case group (p sama dengan 0. 0011). The median duration of ertapenem therapy was 4 days (IQR, 2 6), and almost eight days (IQR, 7 11) in case subjects and control individuals, respectively.

The first episode of seizure amongst case individuals occurred within just 3. several installment payments on your 6 days after initiation of ertapenem treatment. Of such 33 individuals with the progress seizures, twenty three individuals presented as general tonic clonic seizure, on the lookout for as focal seizure, and one while absence seizure. CT reads of the mind and EEGs were set up for seventeen (51. 5%) and twenty four (72. 7%) patients, respectively. The COMPUTERTOMOGRAFIE findings included infarction in 15, hydrocephalus in being unfaithful, normal results in 2, and hemorrhage in one; and the EEGs showed dissipate cortical dysfunction in twenty two, epileptogenic launch in five, normal leads to one, and generalized sharpened waves in one. Only two patients would not take prescription drugs used to control the seizures. Of 31 patients acquiring medical therapy for their ertapenem-associated seizure, 3 (74. 2%) cases required benzodiazepines, including diazepam, midazolam and lorazepam, and 40 (96. 8%) individuals were prescribed with at least one of the following antiepileptic drugs: phenytoin (21 patients, 67. 7%), valproic acid (11, 35. 5%), levetiracetam (9, 29%), and topiramate (1, 3. 2%). Ten (30. 3%) individuals were admitted to the ICU initially, as well as the mean of hospital stay and the primitive in-hospital fatality rate had been 24. 2 seventeen. 1 times and 33. 3%, respectively.


The goal of our work was to analyze the beneficial potential of antibiotics for the treatment of infections because of anE. cloacaestrain that creates a cephalosporinase and a carbapenem-hydrolyzing The first mortality level was comparatively low (25 of 2 hundred animals) and was primarily the result of shock from the procedure or frustrating sepsis. Since the mortality price during the treatment period was near absolutely no and the rate of natural clearance of bacteria was low (ˆ¼1 log10CFU of E. cloacae /g of tissue), the level of clearance of bacteria from the lungs was used to compare treatment groups.

As expected E. cloacae NOR-1 produces basal levels of cephalosporinase. Since ceftazidime is a weak cephalosporinase inducer, it was logical that it was active for the treatment of rats infected with E. cloacae NOR-1. In the case of infection with the stably derepressed E. cloacae NOR-1 mutant, only cefepime was active since ceftazidime is hydrolyzed by overproduction of the chromosomally mediated cephalosporinase. On the contrary, cefepime retained good activity against infection due to the ceftazidime-resistant mutant. It is known that cefepime is active against such strains because of a combination of factors, including faster penetration through the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria and a low affinity for enterobacterial cephalosporinases (13, 14, 26). The cefepime activity in the present study agrees with the results obtained in studies of infections due to a ceftazidime-resistant E. cloacae type strain (18, 25). Moreover, the results obtained with experimental models in the present study were recently supported by a clinical study in which 15 of 17 infections due to ceftazidime-resistant and cefepime-susceptible Enterobacter sp. strains were successfully treated with cefepime. In particular, cefepime was successful as treatment for chronic infections that had responded poorly to repeated therapy (30).

Since the carbapenem-hydrolyzing NmcA does not hydrolyze ceftazidime or cefepime, even when it is produced at a high level, it was logical that NmcA, whatever its in vivo level, did not play any role in the results obtained for cefepime and ceftazidime when they were used as treatments for infections due to E. cloacae NOR-1 or its ceftazidime-resistant mutant. Our results indicated that imipenem and meropenem are equally ineffective for the treatment of infections due to E. cloacae NOR-1. Although these results could have been predicted by the high MIC of imipenem, they are more surprising for meropenem, which has a relatively low MIC. At least two hypotheses may explain the inefficacy of meropenem. An inoculum effect may provide large amounts of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing NmcA in the lungs of animals and may lead to in vivo resistance to meropenem, as indicated by our in vitro studies. Interestingly, meropenem (as imipenem ) or cefoxitin significantly induced the cephalosporinase activity and the carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity, both of which are found in E. cloacae NOR-1. The cephalosporinase induction by carbapenems is not of clinical relevance since carbapenems are not hydrolyzed significantly by enterobacterial cephalosporinases. On the contrary, the induction of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing NmcA of E. cloacae NOR-1 by meropenem may also explain the in vivo inefficacy of meropenem. In this regard, it has recently been shown that clavulanate, a potent inducer of cephalosporinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa , may antagonize the antibacterial activity of ticarcillin in a ticarcillin-clavulanate combination even when MICs of ticarcillin-clavulanate are below the breakpoint for resistance (16). The inefficacy of meropenem for the treatment of E. cloacae NOR-1 infection was not due to meropenem hydrolysis by rat lung dehydropeptidase since cilastatin addition permitted the retrieval of levels in plasma close to those obtained with the regimens used for humans.

Interestingly, and for reasons that are not yet known, the ceftazidime-resistant E. cloacae NOR-1 mutant produced not only high levels of cephalosporinase but also high levels of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing NmcA, which increased significantly the MICs of imipenem and meropenem. These high levels of both were no longer inducible. This result implies that the ceftazidime-resistant E. cloacae NOR-1 mutant is a stably derepressed mutant not only for cephalosporinase biosynthesis but also for NmcA biosynthesis. Therefore, meropenem and imipenem were not active as treatments for infections due to the ceftazidime-resistant E. cloacae NOR-1 mutant.

According to the current model for cephalosporinase regulation (11), it may be hypothesized that a mutated ampD gene in the ceftazidime-resistant E. cloacae NOR-1 mutant produced an inactive AmpD protein, thus explaining the high levels of both cephalosporinase and the carbapenem-hydrolyzing (15). AmpD is an amidase that cleaves peptidoglycan precursors, thus preventing their accumulation in the cytoplasm (10). In cases of an inactive AmpD, these precursors displace AmpR from its repressor binding site in the ampR-ampC promoter regions, thus explaining the stable overproduction of cephalosporinase. In this regard, it should be remembered that the cephalosporinase and the carbapenem-hydrolyzing NmcA are at least regulated by the structurally related LysR-type proteins, AmpR and NmcR, respectively.

For antibiotics T >MIC is the better pharmacokinetic parameter for influencing the outcome of infection (7). Maximal killing is approached when concentrations are one to four times the MIC 60 to 70% of the time, provided that the levels of unbound drug are used to assess the efficacy of highly protein-bound drugs. However, since the efficacies of are affected by the inoculum size (7) T >MIC correlates better with drug efficacy when the MICROPHONE is determined with all the corresponding inoculum size, because observed in the study.

To conclude, cefepime, which is more secure than narrow-spectrum cephalosporins up against the activities in the cephalosporinases as well as the carbapenem-hydrolyzing NmcA ofE. cloacaeNOR-1, also in cases of overproduction, was the best to get the treatment of trial and error infections due to such isolates. It may also decline in vivo the likelihood of selection of carbapenem-hydrolyzing overproducers, as is reputed for the selection of cephalosporinase overproducers. Since the other carbapenem-hydrolyzing of the penicillinase group, Sme-1 and IMI-1, include similar hydrolytic properties and are also regulated much like NmcA (28), it is likely that cefepime may get rid of infections due to Sme-1 or IMI-1-producing stresses. On the contrary, the efficacy of cefepime for the treatment of attacks due to enterobacteria that produce carbapenem-hydrolyzing of other styles such as the metalloenzyme IMP-1 cannot be deduced from our experimental data. Actually, IMP-1 has a much bigger substrate profile than NmcA. Finally, further operate shall be aimed assessment from the efficacy of combined antibiotic therapy, including therapy with aminoglycosides or perhaps fluoroquinolones, which are generally used for the treatment of pneumonia as a result ofEnterobactersp. strains.


Seizures were defined as any kind of abnormal engine movements with or with out dyscognitive features, including key and generalized type , each episode of seizure was documented in medical records by the major care doctors. Patients had been considered to possess chronic renal disease if their baseline believed glomerular purification rate (eGFR) calculated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) solution was below 45 ml/min/1. 73 meters 2 . Usage of some particular medications was categorized into the following: calcium supplements channel blockers including amlodipine, verapamil, and diltiazem; angiotensin-converting enzyme blockers or angiotensin receptor blockers including captopril, valsartan, and losartan; diuretics including spironolactone, hydrochlorothiazide, trichlormethiazide, and furosemide; beta-blockers which includes propranolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, atenolol, and labetalol; alpha-blockers including terazosin, and doxazosin; nitrates including isosorbide mononitrate, and isosorbide dinitrate; antimicrobial brokers including levofloxacin, ceftibuten, amoxicillin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, azithromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, norfloxacin, ceftazidime, fluconazole, vancomycin, aminoglycoside, metronidazole, cefotaxime, ampicillin, colimycin, oxacillin, micafungin, daptomycin, and fosfomycin; antiplatelet agents including acetylsalicylsäure, clopidogrel, dipyridamole and ticlopidine; prokinetic brokers including metoclopramide, domperidone, and mosapride; sedative-hypnotics including fludiazepam, midazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam, zopiclone, estazolam, and zolpidem; opioids including morphine, tramadol, meperidine, and fentanyl; non-steroid potent drugs including ketorolac, diclofenac, etoricoxib, and celecoxib. Through the study period, the recommended ertapenem amounts were while described inside the package put of ertapenem , i. e., the dosage of ertapenem given was one gram once a day in those patients with normal renal function and five-hundred mg daily if their creatinine clearance ‰ 30 ml/min/1. 73m 2, calculated simply by Cockcroft & Gault formula.


The introduction of ertapenem-associated seizures may occur more frequently and far earlier due to its widespread use in treating drug-resistant pathogens, in particular when these pathogens emerged throughout the world. Our study would help physician to estimate the risk of developing seizure among sufferers receiving ertapenem.

Citation:Shelter Y-C, Huang Y-J, Strung M-C, Strung S-C, Hsiao C-Y, Cho H-L, ain al. (2017) Risk factors associated with the development of seizures between adult individuals treated with ertapenem: A matched case-control study. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0182046. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182046

Editor:Gilles van Luijtelaar, Radboud Universiteit, NETHERLANDS

Received:January 11, 2017;Accepted:July 14, 2017;Published:July thirty-one, 2017


This nostalgic study was conducted in Chia-Yi Christian Hospital coming from January 2012 to January 2014. Individuals developing seizures during their ertapenem treatment study course were referred to as case patients. Those with no seizures who had received ertapenem for at least days were considered as the pool of control patients. For each case sufferer, four matched patients from the control pool were arbitrarily selected while the final control group, based on age, male or female, and the time of ertapenem prescription.

Approach comparison to get Carbapenem MICs results

Assessment between agar dilution method and Etest method displays correlations of 0. seventy two for meropenem and zero. 74 for imipenem. Desk 3 shows that 40% (n = 367) from the results were similar for meropenem and 23% (210) to get imipenem. Correspondingly, for meropenem and imipenem, 81. 4% and 61% of the traces tested had been within +/- 1 log2 (mE) dilution and 96. 6% and 91. 5% within +/- 2log2 (ME) dilution. A substantial trend toward a higher Etest MIC consequence was observed among these types of results for the two ingredients (p Stand 3 Variation of meropenem MIC and imipenem MIC effects obtained by simply Etest technique realized by local members, and by agar agar dilution reference point method recognized by a centralized centre (anaerobes excluded).

Incidence Unfamiliar

  • Back, leg, or abdomen pains
  • bleeding gums
  • blistering, peeling, or perhaps loosening in the skin
  • chest pain
  • confusion as to time, place, or person
  • cough
  • standard body swelling
  • standard feeling of fatigue or weak spot
  • hoarseness
  • having false beliefs that cannot be changed by fact
  • joint or perhaps muscle discomfort
  • huge, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, tongue, throat, hands, hip and legs, feet, or perhaps genitals
  • loss of urge for food
  • back or area pain
  • red skin lesions, typically with a purple center
  • red, inflammed eyes
  • seeing, reading, or feeling things which are not there
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white-colored spots on the teeth or around the lips
  • swollen glands
  • unusual excitement, anxiousness, or uneasyness

A lot of side effects of meropenem may possibly occur that always do not need medical help. These side effects may vanish entirely during treatment as your physique adjusts towards the medicine. Also, your health attention professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or perhaps reduce many of these side effects. Consult with your health proper care professional in the event that any of the pursuing side effects continue or are irritating or in case you have any concerns about them: